Scientists at EPFL’s Laboratory for Processing of Advanced Composites (LPAC) and the University of Freiburg’s Botanical Garden have studied how the flax plant heals itself after it has been wounded. As part of a cross-disciplinary EU research project, they measured changes in the plant’s mechanical properties, like stiffness and damping, and examined the plant’s self-repair mechanisms. Because natural fibers are being increasingly used to make composite materials, understanding how such mechanisms work can help scientists develop self-healing materials with better performance, drawing on methods inspired by nature. The research was recently published in PLOS ONE. _EPFL
Edinburgh researchers have shed light on the complex navigation system that insects use to make their way home in a straight line following long, complex journeys.
They have revealed how a network of neurons integrates every detail of changes in direction and distance covered on outbound journeys, and enables bees to return directly home. _UOE
There are precious few species today in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar that scientists can trace directly back to when all of Earth’s continents were joined together as part of the primeval supercontinent Pangea._ KU
Mantis shrimp have mushroom bodies in their brains, structures that are well known from insects but not from crustaceans. The findings of a study question the most commonly held scenario retracing how brain structures evolved in arthropods._UA News
Mitonuclear conflict — a struggle between the genes in a cell’s nucleus and its mitochondria — might sometimes split species in two._Quanta Magazine
The brain plays an active and essential role much earlier than previously thought, according to new research from Tufts University scientists which shows that long before movement or other behaviors occur, the brain of an embryonic frog influences muscle and nerve development and protects the embryo from agents that cause developmental defects.
Observations of behavior in aquaria have shown that the hermit crab transports its symbiotic coral and rescues the coral from being overturned or buried, just as the symbiotic sipunculan does, suggesting that the coral–hermit crab association is the same accommodation–transportation symbiosis observed between the coral and sipunculan. This case is interesting in that an animal species phylogenetically distant from the original symbiont takes over its role transporting the host coral._PLOS one
Scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are working on a technology that can replicate vital human tissues on microchips.
September 2017: Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC) ecologists have made a ground-breaking discovery, using exceptional natural history skills to uncover a Night Parrot population at Kalamurina Wildlife Sanctuary on the north shore of Kata Thandi-Lake Eyre.
It is the first record of the Night Parrot in South Australia for more than a century.
In a new paper published in Science, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania provided a detailed look into how self-assembled squid lenses have evolved to adjust for light distortion, which allows them to see clearly in the dim waters of the open ocean. _Penn News
Researchers have used the simplest approach yet to produce artificial beta cells from human kidney cells. Like their natural model, the artificial cells act as both sugar sensors and insulin producers._ ETH Zurich
A layer of regulatory information on top of DNA is proving to be as important as genes for development, health and sickness._ Salk Institute
ETH researchers have discovered a molecule in liver cells that controls the release of fat into the bloodstream. This “lock keeper” is present in large quantities in overweight people and leads indirectly to vascular narrowing._ ETH Zurich
Experiments performed by ETH scientists have shown that it is remarkably easy for protein-like, two-dimensional structures – amyloids – to form from basic building blocks. This discovery supports the researchers’ hypothesis that primal life could have evolved from amyloids such as these. _Fabio Bergamin ETH Zurich
Tufts University researchers have discovered a new technique for generating rapidly-differentiating human neural stem cells for use in a variety of tissue engineering applications, including a three-dimensional model of the human brain, according to a paper published today in Stem Cell Reports.
Patrick Collins • Tufts University
Hidden in the color of birds and their mating choices, says Rafael Maia of the Simons Society of Fellows, is information that can help elucidate the evolution of complex behaviors
by Ashley Yeager Simons Foundation
Scientists have figured out how microbes can suck energy from rocks. Such life-forms might be more widespread than anyone anticipated._Quanta Magazine
A bizarre Amazonian butterfly is the ultimate freeloader, researchers say. The butterfly species steals and eats gooey bamboo secretions from its ant neighbors, in a relationship known as kleptoparasitism, new research has found. _live science | By Tia Ghose
Scientists at King’s College London have developed a blood test that accurately and reliably predicts whether depressed patients will respond to common antidepressants, which could herald a new era of personalised treatment for people with depression._ King’s College of London
Scientists have discovered, for the first time, a fossilised heart in a 119 million-year-old fish from Brazil called Rhacolepis. This has been possible thanks to the powerful X-rays of the ESRF, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France. This breakthrough can provide clues about cardiac evolution._ESRF
Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter, regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and other functions by binding to dedicated receptor proteins. Serotonin receptors have been researched for decades, but details about their structure and function are hard to come by. EPFL scientists have now made the first ever computer simulation of a notoriously elusive serotonin receptor that is involved in fast signal transmission in neurons and plays a central role in disorders such as schizophrenia, chemotherapy nausea, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and seizures. The work is published in the journal Structure._EPFL
In two recent Caltech studies, researchers used a state-of-the-art imaging technique to capture, for the first time, three-dimensional views of this tiny complicated machinery in bacteria. _Now@Caltech
Scientists at the University of Cambridge have for the first time shown that it is possible to derive from a human embryo so-called ‘naïve’ pluripotent stem cells – one of the most flexible types of stem cell, which can develop into all human tissue other than the placenta.__The University of Cambridge
So-called «supercoils» change the behavior of DNA, opening a new role for topology in the study of life._Quanta Magazine