Observations challenge cosmological theories

Recent observations create a puzzle for astrophysicists: since the big bang, less galaxy clusters have formed over time than was actually expected. Physicists from the university of Bonn have now confirmed this phenomenon. For the next three years, the researchers will analyze their data in even greater detail. This will put them in a position to confirm whether the theories considered valid today need to be reworked. The study is part of a series of 20 publications which appear in the professional journal «Astronomy and Astrophysics».

Electrons ride plasma wave

There is a good chance that soon a new door will open to physicists, offering them new insights into the mysteries of the universe. The international AWAKE collaboration has made a breakthrough in its efforts to build a new type of particle accelerator. _MPI

Where do particle names come from?

One of the most difficult things in learning particle physics for the first time is to understand all of the various names. There are dozens and dozens and sometimes many names can apply to one particle or a single name can apply to many particles. It’s all very confusing. Luckily, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln made this video to help you sort it all out.

Scientists observe supermassive black hole in infant universe

A team of astronomers, including two from MIT, has detected the most distant supermassive black hole ever observed. The black hole sits in the center of an ultrabright quasar, the light of which was emitted just 690 million years after the Big Bang. That light has taken about 13 billion years to reach us — a span of time that is nearly equal to the age of the universe._MIT

New evidence for dark matter makes it even more exotic

Looking at massive galaxy clusters, EPFL astronomers have observed that their brightest galaxies within them “wobble” — an unexpected phenomenon in current models. The discovery, published in MNRAS, adds to the body of evidence of dark matter beyond the Standard Cosmological Model (ΛCDM). _EPFL

Researchers get first look at electrons escaping atoms | The Ohio State University

Researchers have—for just a fraction of a second—glimpsed an electron’s-eye view of the world. That is, they have succeeded for the first time in tracking an electron leaving the vicinity of an atom as the atom absorbs light. In a way akin to taking “snapshots” of the process, they were able to follow how each electron’s unique momentum changed over the incredibly short span of time it took to escape its host atom and become a free electron. _OSU

Meteorites may have brought building blocks of life to Earth | McMaster Daily News

Life on Earth began somewhere between 3.7 and 4.5 billion years ago, after meteorites splashed down and leached essential elements into warm little ponds, say scientists at McMaster University and the Max Planck Institute in Germany.

Their calculations suggest that wet and dry cycles bonded basic molecular building blocks in the ponds’ nutrient-rich broth into self-replicating RNA molecules that constituted the first genetic code for life on the planet.

McMaster University

The fastest light-driven current source

Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ­­ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.

Why Black Holes Collide ?

Just months after their discovery, gravitational waves coming from the mergers of black holes are shaking up astrophysics. _ By Natalie Wolchover, Quanta Magazine

Great Red Spot on Jupiter

Jupiter’s Great Red Spot – the largest and longest-persisting storm in the solar system – may provide the energy required to heat the planet’s upper atmosphere to the unusually high values observed. So says an international team of astronomers, who believe they have found that the atmosphere above the storm is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere else on the planet._Tushna Commissariat, physicsworld.com

Neutrinos and Antineutrinos

An early sign that neutrinos behave differently than antineutrinos suggests an answer to one of the biggest questions in physics._ Natalie Wolchover, Quanta Magazine

The world’s newest atom-smasher achieves its ‘first turns’

One of the world’s top particle accelerators has reached a milestone, achieving its «first turns» — circulating beams of particles for the first time — and opening a new window into the universe, a view that will give physicists access to a record rate of particle collisions in a tiny volume in space.__PNNL

Quantum computer made of standard semiconductor materials

Physicists at the Technical University of Munich, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Stanford University (USA) have tracked down semiconductor nanostructure mechanisms that can result in the loss of stored information – and halted the amnesia using an external magnetic field. The new nanostructures comprise common semiconductor materials compatible with standard manufacturing processes. _ TUM

Scientists spot jets from supermassive black hole snacking on a star

Scientists have discovered a hungry black hole swallowing a star at the centre of a nearby galaxy.
The supermassive black hole was found to have faint jets of material shooting out from it and helps to confirm scientists’ theories about the nature of black holes.
The discovery was published today in the journal Science._ICRAR

The quantum source of space-time

Many physicists believe that entanglement is the essence of quantum weirdness — and some now suspect that it may also be the essence of space-time geometry._Ron Cowen/Nature

Μυθική Βιοτεχνολογία στην κλασσική αρχαιότητα (επιθυμία – ελπίδα – φόβος)

Η αφθονία ορθολογικών, ή μη αντιλήψεων που αποπνέουν τα συσκοτισμένα όρια μεταξύ φυσικού και αφύσικου, τέχνης κι επιστήμης, ζωής και θανάτου, προκαλεί απάνθισμα πρωτόγνωρων και νοητικά δελεαστικών συναισθημάτων, όπως αυτά που διαδέχονται την ανακάλυψη κάποιου ουράνιου αντικειμένου, επιλεγμένων από τον μοναδικά εντυπωσιακό και ραγδαία αναπτυσσόμενο κόσμο της βιοτεχνολογίας1. Η πρόοδος αυτή μας έφερε αντιμέτωπους με έννοιες όπως αναπαραγωγή, πολλαπλασιασμός ή ακόμη και δημιουργία ζωής, συνοδεία της αμφιθυμίας που τις περιβάλλει. Ωστόσο, η μελέτη της Eλληνικής μυθολογίας και τέχνης αποκαλύπτει ότι αν και φαινομενικά όψιμες, οι έννοιες αυτές προκάλεσαν την αρχαία νόηση χιλιάδες χρόνια πριν την έλευση των σύγχρονων επιστημονικών μεθόδων.

Theories of Everything, Mapped

In the quest for a unified, coherent description of all of nature — a “theory of everything” — physicists have unearthed the taproots linking ever more disparate phenomena.

The mystery of particle generations

The Standard Model of particles and interactions is remarkably successful for a theory everyone knows is missing big pieces. It accounts for the everyday stuff we know like protons, neutrons, electrons and photons, and even exotic stuff like Higgs bosons and top quarks. But it isn’t complete; it doesn’t explain phenomena such as dark matter and dark energy.

Why there is so little breathable oxygen in space?

Μπορεί να το αναπνέουμε κάθε λεπτό, αλλά στο διάστημα δεν βρίσκεται σχεδόν καθόλου μοριακό οξυγόνο. Το 1998, η NASA εκτόξευσε δορυφόρο με την προσδοκία ότι θα έβρισκε αρκετή ποσότητα οξυγόνου, κάτι το οποίο δεν συνέβει και οι επιστήμονες θεωρώντας ότι είχε υποστεί βλάβη στα όργανα μέτρησης, τον κατεύθυναν πίσω στην γή.

AMS results create cosmic ray puzzle

-Νέα δεδομένα από το πείραμα AMS-Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, διαφωνούν με τα σημερινά μοντέλα που περιγράφουν την προέλευση και την κίνηση των σωματιδίων υψηλής ενέργειας τα οποία ονομάζονται κοσμικές ακτίνες.- Π.Δ.Λιβάς
-New results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment defy our current understanding of cosmic rays,
by Sarah Charley

Complex Organic Molecules Discovered in Infant Star System

Για πρώτη φορά, αστρονόμοι ανίχνευσαν την παρουσία πολύπλοκων οργανικών μορίων, δομικών στοιχείων της ζωής, σε πρωτοπλανητικό δίσκο που περιβάλλει νεαρό άστρο, γεγονός που υποδηλώνει μια ακόμη φορά ότι οι συνθήκες κατά τις οποίες γεννήθηκαν η Γη και ο Ήλιος μας, δεν είναι μοναδικές στο σύμπαν.

Black holes don’t erase information, scientists say

Αυτό που επί σειρά ετών υποστηρίζουν οι επιστήμονες είναι ότι οι μαύρες τρύπες αποτελούν κρύπτη υψίστης ασφαλείας για πληροφορίες που εισέρχονται σε αυτές, οι οποίες στην συνέχεια εξατμίζονται χωρίς να αφήνουν πίσω οποιοδήποτε ίχνος του παρελθόντος τους. Ωστόσο, νέα δεδομένα καταδεικνύουν ότι η προοπτική αυτή ενδέχεται να είναι λανθασμένη.